These peoples have a broadly shared, though complex, genetic history, but it is only in the last two hundred years that they have been defined a
, The WHO notes that "Statistical data on the health status of indigenous peoples is scarce. (For a discussion of the names given to the Indigenous peoples of Australia, see Researcher’s Note: Britannica usage standards: Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia.). In settler states colonized by Europeans, such as in the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania, Indigenous status is generally unproblematically applied to groups descended from peoples who lived there prior to European invasion and settlement. Here, people seem to have moved seasonally between permanent settlements near the sea and others at the headwaters of the coast rivers. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Some scholars now argue, however, that there is evidence of the early practice of both agriculture and aquaculture by Aboriginal peoples.  In 2007, the United Nations issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) to guide member-state national policies to the collective rights of Indigenous peoples, including culture, identity, language and access to employment, health, quality education and natural resources.
Despite the diversity of indigenous peoples, it may be noted that they share common problems and issues in dealing with the prevailing, or invading, society. There are also indigenous people residing in the hills of Northern, North-eastern and Southern India like the Tamils (of Tamil Nadu), Shina, Kalasha, Khowar, Burusho, Balti, Wakhi, Domaki, Nuristani, Kohistani, Gujjar and Bakarwal, Meenas, Ladakhi, Lepcha, Bhutia (of Sikkim), Naga (of Nagaland), indigenous Assamese communities, Mizo (of Mizoram), Tripuri (Tripura), Adi and Nyishi (Arunachal Pradesh), Kodava (of Kodagu), Toda, Kurumba, Kota (of the Nilgiris), Irulas and others.
Indigenous populations are distributed in regions throughout the globe. In the southern states of Chiapas, Yucatán and Oaxaca they constitute 26.1%, 33.5% and 35.3%, respectively, of the population. Others, however, have failed to overcome the many legal hurdles placed in their way by the government’s land rights legislation. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region (sedentary) or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. The Amerindians make up 0.4% of all Brazilian population, or about 700,000 people. The highly diverse and numerous ethnic groups that comprise most modern, independent African states contain within them various peoples whose situation, cultures and pastoralist or hunter-gatherer lifestyles are generally marginalized and set apart from the dominant political and economic structures of the nation.
Some challenges are specific to particular groups; however, other challenges are commonly experienced.
, Ethnic groups descended from and identified with the original inhabitants of a given region, "First peoples" redirects here. Archaeologists believe that the Aboriginals first came to the Australian continent around 45,000 years ago.  The words original, autochthonous or first (as in Canada's First Nations) are also used. During much of the 20th century, outright killings were replaced with a policy of removing Aboriginal children from their parents and giving them to white families or placing them in mission schools, to eradicate traces of Aboriginal culture and language.  More currently, the term "Aboriginal" is being replaced with "Indigenous". A UPR report By IOC-Campa", "Economy in Motion: Cham Muslim Traders in the Mekong Delta", "Indonesia denies it has any indigenous peoples", "7 Becoming Socialist or Becoming Kinh? The primary impetus in considering indigenous identity comes from the post-colonial movements and considering the historical impacts on populations by the European imperialism. Aboriginals themselves, however, trace their creation back to the Dreamtime, an era long past when the earth was first formed. In countries where these rights are recognized, land titling and demarcation procedures are often put on delay, or leased out by the state as concessions for extractive industries without consulting indigenous communities.  Not all Indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. The exploratory and colonial ventures in the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific often resulted in territorial and cultural conflicts, and the intentional or unintentional displacement and devastation of the indigenous populations. They are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler societies born of forces of empire and conquest".. The languages of Taiwanese aborigines have significance in historical linguistics, since in all likelihood Taiwan was the place of origin of the entire Austronesian language family, which spread across Oceania.. In Brazil, the Portuguese term índio is used by most of the population, the media, the indigenous peoples themselves and even the government (FUNAI is an acronym for the Fundação Nacional do Índio), although its Hispanic equivalent indio is widely considered not politically correct and is falling into disuse. A 2009 United Nations publication says "Although indigenous peoples are often portrayed as a hindrance to development, their cultures and traditional knowledge are also increasingly seen as assets. The use of the 's' in 'peoples' recognizes that there are real differences between different indigenous peoples. The Russians invaded Siberia and conquered the indigenous people in the 17th–18th centuries. A WRI report mentions that “tenure-secure” Indigenous lands generates billions and sometimes trillions of dollars’ worth of benefits in the form of carbon sequestration, reduced pollution, clean water and more. HoWhy theory and the cultural transition in the Sakha Republic. Health disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous populations are evident in both developed and developing countries. In the post-colonial period, the concept of specific indigenous peoples within the African continent has gained wider acceptance, although not without controversy.  Friends of Peoples Close to Nature considers not only that indigenous culture should be respected as not being inferior, but also sees indigenous ways of life as offering frameworks in sustainability and as a part of the struggle within the "corrupted" western world, from which the threat[which?] A majority of the Papua New Guinea (PNG) population is indigenous, with more than 700 different nationalities recognized in a total population of 8 million.
, After World War I (1914-1918), many Europeans came to doubt the morality of the means used to "civilize" peoples.
Indigenous peopleshave been in Canada since time immemorial. However, it is clear that cultures existed whose indigenous characteristics were distinguished by the subsequent Hellenic cultures (and distinct from non-Greek speaking "foreigners", termed "barbarians" by the historical Greeks). In Spanish or Portuguese speaking countries, one finds the use of terms such as índios, pueblos indígenas, amerindios, povos nativos, povos indígenas, and, in Peru, Comunidades Nativas (Native Communities), particularly among Amazonian societies like the Urarina and Matsés.
11 Mar. The reason of nonrecognition is the size of the population and relatively late advent to their current regions, thus indigenous peoples in Russia should be numbered less than 50,000 people. The government’s response to the report was to launch the ‘Northern Territory National Emergency Response’ later that year. Today more than half of all Aboriginals live in towns, often on the outskirts in terrible conditions.
The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, adopted by the General Assembly in 2007, established indigenous peoples' right to self-determination, implying several rights regarding natural resource management. In 2010 and 2013 several incidents occurred in Thành Tín and Phươc Nhơn villages where Cham were murdered by Vietnamese. There are also others sets of indigenous peoples in Palawan, Mindoro, Visayas, and the rest central and south Luzon. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, n.d. Google Scholar. This situation can persist even in the case where the indigenous population outnumbers that of the other inhabitants of the region or state; the defining notion here is one of separation from decision and regulatory processes that have some, at least titular, influence over aspects of their community and land rights. One Aboriginal man explained it thus: Aboriginals’ land was invaded from the end of the 18th century onwards, with catastrophic consequences for them. The decision recognized for the first time the existence of Aboriginal ‘native title’ over large parts of rural Australia. In Australia, the indigenous populations are the Aboriginal Australian peoples (comprising many different nations and tribes) and the Torres Strait Islander peoples (also with sub-groups). In Myanmar, indigenous peoples include the Shan, the Karen, the Rakhine, the Karenni, the Chin, the Kachin and the Mon.  Cham in the Mekong Delta have also been economically marginalised, with ethnic Vietnamese settling on land previously owned by Cham people with state support. Indigenous people in the Russian Federation, Lehtola, M. (2012). During the 17th century, Europeans commonly labeled indigenous peoples as "uncivilized". Many, particularly in the northern half of the continent, have managed to cling on to their land and still hunt and gather ‘bush tucker’. However, most now accept that there was a wide range of variation in pre-European populations.
For example, smallpox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, and other diseases were unknown in pre-Columbian America and Australia. In May 2016, the Fifteenth Session of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) affirmed that indigenous peoples (also termed aboriginal people, native people, or autochthonous people) are distinctive groups protected in international or national legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their linguistic and historical ties to a particular territory, prior to later settlement, development, and or occupation of a region. The United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII), a high-level advisory body to the United Nations Economic and Social Council, was established on 28 July 2000 with the mandate to deal with indigenous issues related to economic and social development, culture, the environment, education, health and human rights.
The first paragraph of the Introduction of a report published in 2009 by the Secretariat of the Permanent Forum on indigenous Issues published a report, states, For centuries, since the time of their colonization, conquest or occupation, Indigenous peoples have documented histories of resistance, interface or cooperation with states, thus demonstrating their conviction and determination to survive with their distinct sovereign identities.
Indigenous groups asserting their rights has most often results in torture, imprisonment, or death. In 2012, Indonesia stated that ‘The Government of Indonesia supports the promotion and protection of indigenous people worldwide ... Indonesia, however, does not recognize the application of the indigenous peoples concept ... in the country’. Australian Aboriginal peoples, one of the two distinct groups of Indigenous peoples of Australia, the other being the Torres Strait Islander peoples.