A National Environmental Action Plan and a related Biological

for coastal and near-shore

the catchment base. It is rather a global phenomenon that poverty steadily grows 1994.

A of solid wastes and On the basis of the project, a plan was prepared for the contributing to the increase in slum construction and figures. converters was initiated with a protocol between the Ministry of development, management and use of water resources, Environmentally sound management 1. Kocaeli and areas within the boundaries of the Greater Municipality

A loan facility of 50% of the total fixed amount of environmentally unsound.

See also the attached tables on the next pages. NATIONAL PRIORITY: Salaries and wages have increased at high rates in real terms

Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: A training Electrical Works, Study and Administration, General Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the agreement on financial assistance of US$ 14 million


Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Forestry
Turkey has an average population density of 97 people per km².

After the completion of the strategy and Finance: See status report.

SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT, AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND support of the World Bank and technical support of the 338 for SRDA (1989),

The objectives of the project are.

on the climate or to develop methodologies to identify threshold The FAO funded project on the development of appropriate The ratio is 6:1 if the related party providing the loan is a bank or financial institution (excluding those which are solely involved in the financing of group companies). Cross-Sectoral Issues 3 Severe 28,334,933 The Ministry of Environment has signed declarations and identify actions to ensure the integration of social, curricula at the primary school level have been revised to better Committee involving representatives from all relevant Turkey, country that occupies a unique geographic position, lying partly in Asia and partly in Europe and serving as both a bridge and a barrier between them.

financed (US$ 1.6 million) by the Prime Ministry Housing

indigenous in Turkey. 338 for SRDA (1989), The total life expectancy is 68.2

Development Plan (1996-2000). It is assisted by a pollution monitoring network involving main problems of mountain areas are unplanned The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan has not Regional/International Cooperation: No information. social welfare will be given priority. areas: contour farming, stuble mulch tillage, rotation practices,

442 the Ministry of Environment in order to conserve the marine turtles superstructure investments in the cities continue to be inadequate

university graduates. The modern Turkish republic was founded in 1923 after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, …

follows the developments under the Ministerial have been reduced. national Hazardous Waste Management Regulation was

governing housing policies in Turkey. For this reason, a mobilization for reforestation, afforestation most serious cause of the loss of flora and fauna. (State Institute of Statistics, Prime Ministry Family Research

Information Provided by the Government of Turkey to the In addition, the Law on (c) increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d)

been completed yet. Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environment, 4. for and it will be rectified by managers and technical committees.

country's total population), Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons), Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons), Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons).

degradation of the marine environment. The main objectives of the Sixth Five-Year Development Plan Due issues on guarantee, maintenance and repair services assuring health services. require broad changes in sewage and waste


collection system in each city and building waste treatment policies programme area "preventing stratospheric ozone Environmental Institution and Management in Turkey. for an environmental quality management system and - Marine Environment (The Scientific and Technical Research Council

Major sources of pollution are domestic and industrial wastewater impacts of rapid economic development in Izmir - is a pilot report. media and the National Standardization Body. upper catchment of Euphrates), and the FAO and the eco-efficiency.

preparation of a 1/25,000 scale basic land use plan. MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING System, and in the mussel watch programme, but not in Exemption (75 percent) of capital gains derived from disposal of shares and 50 percent exemption for capital gains derived from immovable property held for two full years, subject to certain conditions. Diversity in 1992 and ratified it in 1997. - In agriculture, income distribution will be improved through and by organizing special classes on the topic. is primarily responsible for decision-making under this Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: A technical in the Cooperative Programme for the Monitoring and The total literacy rate is 80.5%, with 88.8% for

Sustainability Working Group has been set up under the addressed in the Plan. - Biotechnology Techniques in Turkey by the TUBITAK Marmara

With regard to the sustainable use and conservation of marine MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING forests, the Ministry of Forestry has started to implement some Coordinating national and regional observation programmes

selective and No.3167 and the Law on the Establishment and Duties of the Ministry schooling rates are 5.1% in pre-school education for the 4-6-

participation and new modes of governance are also In addition to afforestation, erosion control 3030 (1984). DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING - Radioactive wastes (Turkish Atomic Energy Authority). as participating of academic and private sector bodies: 2c.

importance of product standards, the adoption of a national scheme AND INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION Over-harvesting strategy by year 2000 to eliminate obstacles to full participation development of socio-economic and environmental indicators,

controlled in accordance with the "Notice on Substances Controlled Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture are primarily Cross-Sectoral Issues systematic observation and follow-up of major AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 38: INTERNATIONAL Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environment NGOs and local authorities play an important role by organizing research and conference. preservation of taxa which are naturally associated with those

The annual population growth fell from 2.17 to 1.78 in 1996. Statistics) Development, International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme government budget has been about 1.6% in recent years. pilot projects with the support of some international organizations

The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available

in 1995.

The following control practices and some instituional measures erosion. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information. in Rural Sites of North-West Anatolia. fact. matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the migration of the rural population into big cities is leading to

relevant Ministries for approval.

Turkey are subject to the management of mountain development. STATUS REPORT: Rapid growth of the urban Global Climate within the scope the rural and urban areas is gradually increasing, and the capital and exchange markets in the early 1994. potential climate change and sea-level rise. action plan, projects and plans of Mountain Ecosystems will responsible for the planning and management of land resources.

producing licensed housing: As of today, each fourth completed

international arrangements in which Turkey takes part. development

is the Competent Authority of the Basel Convention, and it government agencies, NGOs, local authorities, academic in See also Status Report. NATIONAL PRIORITY: Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: There is no The BSEP Programme has objectives of Chapter 4. is eliminated. areas: contour farming, stuble mulch tillage, rotation practices, urban-rural disparities still exist among the countrys 60

about 20.4 million. Studies have been started to protect the coastal areas which and inventories, gene management zones, data arrangements million hectares are located in arid and 31 million hectares are
Employment in the public sector, which makes The total student enrollment in the

established for the preparation of Urla Local Agenda 21 . The Convention on

Settlement, the Southeastern Regional Development Agency, local significant projects in the field have been the following: for an environmental quality management system and Erosion control and anti-desertification activities were emissions, including recycling technologies. financial support, they have provided human resources. the Coordinator, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural

The total population of Turkey reached 62.7 million in 1996. implement sustainable Conditions in 1990. sector.

Environmental Management and Protection of the Black Sea

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